After the abrogation of Article 370 in Jammu and Kashmir, there are many changes felt on the ground. In educational sector, there also are many changes, particularly in the text books. History of class 9th and Political Science of class 12th have are glaring examples. In case of History of class 9th, the chapter” The integration of Princely States: A Case Study of Jammu and Kashmir” has been added this year. It deals with the integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India. However, some information is incomplete, misrepresented and projects propaganda that contradicts history. Firstly, the Standstill Agreement of Jammu and Kashmir was with both India and Pakistan. Pakistan signed the Standstill on August 12, 1947 but India didn’t sign it. India wanted to send an official from Jammu and Kashmir to Delhi to clarify some things. But the reality is something different. Hassan Zainagiri in his book” Kashmir Aatish-e-Zairpaa” says that India approached Maharaja Hari Singh more than twice before the signing of the Instrument of Accession. Furthermore, Alastair Lamb in his book “Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy 1846-1990” says that in case of the Punjab and its districts like Gurdaspur, manipulation took place. Three tehsils of Gurdaspur with the Muslim-majority tehsils like Batala and Gurdaspur were given to India, which meant the opposition of the Partition Plan. The Partition Plan sought to merge the Muslim-majority areas with Pakistan on the basis of religion and geographical proximity. The Punjab Plan divided the Punjab into the East Punjab and the West Punjab. The East Punjab was given to India and the West Punjab was given to Pakistan. The Communal riots began and many people were killed in this frenzy. It was the diplomacy of Nehru, Mountbatten, Mehr Chand Mahajan, Sardar Patel, etc. that made it possible. The second clarification is about the infiltration from Pakistan. Christopher Snedden in his book “ Kashmir: The Unwritten History’ says that the infiltration from Pakistan was a local uprising. Nehru and Sardar Patel were aware about it. It was a sort of conspiracy to grab Jammu and Kashmir. Alastair Lamb in the above mentioned book says that when the Indian Forces landed in Jammu and Kashmir on 27 October, 1947, they were amazed to see the Patiala Forces already guarding Srinagar. The Sikh Maharaja of the Punjab had already acceded to India in the early 1947. Here, the point of importance is that if the Patiala Forces were legal in helping the Indian Forces, in the same manner, the Pashtun tribals came to help their Muslim brethren in Jammu and Kashmir when in Poonch, many Muslims had been killed mercilessly. It is said that Hari Singh ordered his troops kill the Muslims in Poonch. Moreover, the Patiala Forces violated the international laws by intruding into an independent state at that time, Jammu and Kashmir. Shabnam Qayoom in his book “Kashmir Accession: A Farce” says that the Instrument of Accession was a drama, enacted to enslave Jammu and Kashmir. The Pashtun tribals was a part of that very drama. Third and the last clarification is that the Instrument of Accession took place on 27 October, 1947 instead on 26 October, 1947 as being told by Shabnam Qayoom. Alastair Lamb in this regard says that Accession papers were not genuine. India has not produced them in any international forum yet. It is also being said that when India took the dispute of Jammu and Kashmir to the UNO, she didn’t attach the Instrument of Accession papers.
History should be present in an unbiased manner to all, particularly the students. In Jammu and Kashmir, after the incident of August 5, 2019, the students have been asking about the history of Jammu and Kashmir. They want to know about the Article 370 and 35-A. They want to know about the Constituent Assembly and the Legislative Assembly. They want to know about the amendment procedures. Many students surf internet and try to know actual history themselves. Alastair Lamb, A.G. Noorani, Christopher Snedden, Joseph Korbel, Shabnam Qayoom, Hassan Zainagiri, Zahir-Ud-Din , Syed Ali Shah Geelani, etc., are being read by the students online while some want to read it through other ways.
References: “Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy 1846-1990 by Alastair Lamb.
“Kashmir Aatish-e-Zairpaa” by Hassan Zainagiri.
“ Comprehensive History of Jammu and Kashmir and its Freedom Struggle” by Shabnam Qayoom.
“Kashmir: The Unwritten History” by Christopher Snedden.
“ Danger in Kashmir” by Joseph Korbel.
“Kashmir Accession: A Farce” by Shabnam Qayoom.
(The author is a freelancer. Views are exclusively his own)