Man is a social animal. He cannot live in isolation because he is not self sufficient and the natural instinct to survive compels him to live a collective life.This collective life necessitates a political mechanism of rules, regulations and leadership. An organized society needs some system to make and enforce rules for orderly behaviour in society. This led to the evolution of a political system with elaborate governmental institutions & procedures in each society. Therefore, man is also a political animal. Political science is one of the oldest subjects of study of this political life of man. Politics is not only a mere institution of governance but also a mechanism for achieving societal goals. Political science is a social science concerned with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. It includes matters concerning the allocation and transfer of power in decision making, the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations, political behavior and public policies. Political science is thus a study of the state in the past, present and future. Political science has several subfields, including political theory, public policy, national politics, international relations, human rights, environment politics and comparative politics. The study of politics is both humanistic and scientific, and is centuries old. Aristotle called it the “Queen of the sciences’. Politics is a noun which refers to human governance. The corresponding adjective is ‘political’ and the adverbial equivalent is ‘politically.’ An election is usually a competition between different parties. Some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Democratic Party (D) in the United States, the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India .A person who seeks to be elected to the government is called a ‘politician. ‘Politicians are persons who have a hunch for statecraft and a taste for statesmanship and an urge to play the game plan of politics. But there are two kinds of politicians .A genuine, patriotic, self sacrificing or a saintly politician has an inner drive to plunge into politics because he is fired with a vision. He has a great zeal to work for the poor, the downtrodden, the exploited and the neglected brethren or he may take up the work for nobler and higher causes such as freedom, human rights, justice and dignity of women by wielding the power of governance or political leadership. He may feel highly energised to see a great potential in his country and people and may have dreams to take his country to a place of honour among the comity of nations.
By breaking down the communication system in Kashmir, which is seen as the lifeblood of successful organizations valley suffers a lot. When authorities at all levels are communicating well with each other and with their subordinates, employees with their consumers the business have more chances of success.
On the other hand, there may be politicians who stealthily enter the portals of politics or gate-crash into it for power, position, prestige, and privileges or for amassing wealth without any moral scruples. These latter types are over-ambitious and make all kinds of attempts to capture levels of power for self-aggrandisement or for narrow interests of a class, community, party or coterie. It is because of this latter kind of politicians that politics becomes dirty and politicians, as a class, get defamed. Politicians of this latter category use party, community or class also for their own selfish aims. They may have suitcases full of currency notes in every room of their every building but, if they are caught by the CBI, they may say that the money belongs to the party and, if no one notices their abominable acts and their detestable modus operandi, they may collect money in the name of the party and keep it for themselves. There are also leaders who are not in active politics but who remain in the background but work their designs through their agents. There are so many powers but there are no principles and the result is that the game is spoiled. Politicians are the representatives of the society; they have to do so many things. They have (i) to make laws, (ii) run the internal affairs of a State according to the will of the people, (iii) devise and enact the State-policy with regard to Education, Human Resource Development, Social Welfare, Commerce, Trade & Industry, Environment, Rural & Urban Development, Transport, Communications, Health, Multi-Media, Promotion of Arts, Culture, Science & Technology, Agriculture, Natural Sciences, National Economy or Finance, Accounts, Excise & Taxation, etc., (iv) plan and assure Defence of the country against external aggression and security against internal criminal elements and internal in surgery, (v) safeguard the interests of the country, vis-a-vis other countries, (vi) regulate the relationships of the State with other States, (vii) maintain law & order, national solidarity and public peace, (viii) look after matters relating to the interest of various sections of the society such as the Youth, the Women and the Sportspersons, (ix) Family planning and Population-growth, (x) Employment, (xi) Housing, (xii) Energy, (xiii) Water management, (xiv) to provide for the Aged and the retired, the weaker classes and the backward sections, etc. (xv) to resolve the conflicts between diverse or antagonistic interests of various communities and sectional demands of various groups and classes, (xvi) Relief in the case of natural calamities and (xviii) to govern all the internal and external affairs of the State and to fulfil all other responsibilities, connected with these. This would show how important is the work of the politicians and how great are the responsibilities of politicians. Broadly speaking about the governance of Jammu and Kashmir, as of now it seems much more complicated. Like the union territory of Puducherry, Indian administered parts of Jammu & Kashmir have a multi-party democratic system of governance. The primary political parties include the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (NC), the Indian National Congress (Congress), Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party (PDP).Jammu and Kashmir was the only Indian state that had its own flag. The state flag of Jammu and Kashmir consisted of the native plough on a red background which is a symbol of labour. The three stripes represented the three administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh. However, as Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which granted Jammu and Kashmir autonomy, was abrogated in August 2019, the flag has lost its official status. Following the 2008 Kashmir unrest, secessionist movements in the region were boosted. The 2016–17 Kashmir unrest resulted in the death of over 90 civilians and the injury of over 15,000.Six policemen, including a sub-inspector were killed in an ambush in Anantnag in June 2017, by trespassing militants of the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba.An attack on an Indian police convoy in Pulwama, in February 2019, resulted in the deaths of 40 police officers. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by a militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed. In August 2019, both houses of the Parliament of India passed resolutions to amend Article 370 and extend the Constitution of India in its entirety to the state, which was implemented as a constitutional order by the President of India. At the same time, the parliament also passed the Jammu and Kashmir reorganisation Act, 2019, which contained provisions that dissolved the state of Jammu and Kashmir and established two new union territories: the eponymous union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and that of Ladakh. The reorganisation act was assented to by the President of India, and came into effect on 31 October 2019.Prior to these measures, the union government locked down the Kashmir Valley, increased security forces, imposed Section 144 that prevented assembly, and placed political leaders such as former Jammu and Kashmir chief ministers Omar Abdullah and Mehbooba Mufti under house arrest. Internet and phone services were also blocked. By breaking down the communication system in Kashmir, which is seen as the lifeblood of successful organizations valley suffers a lot. When authorities at all levels are communicating well with each other and with their subordinates, employees with their consumers the business have more chances of success. When it is done ineffectively obviously it can negatively impact the society at all. In short, politicians so elected by the people are the real representatives of the society at all. They should perform their rights and responsibilities willfully and positively and in return they will definitely get positive respond from the society as well. As it is well said “As you sow so shall you reap”…
(The author is a freelancer. Views are his own)