Muslims are given a code of conduct, ethics, and social values by Islam, which aids them in tolerating and developing adaptive coping techniques in the face of stressful circumstances. Islam teaches how to live in peace with one another. Suicide is considered a cardinal sin in Islam. Muslims believe those who have committed suicide to be forbidden from entering Paradise. Suicide has severe individual, family, and social consequences. Each individual who carries out suicide according to religious Hadiths are bound to suffer severe and painful punishments in the other world. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) says, “Whoever carries out suicide by iron, will enter into the hell forever, while the iron is in his hand and part of it is into his belly. The one who carries out suicide e.g. by eating toxic materials, will enter into the hell and stay there forever, while that toxic material is in his hand. The one also carries out suicide e.g. by jumping from the mountain, then he will be thrown into hell and he will stay there forever.” He says in another narration, “Whoever carries out suicide by eating poisonous food, he will be suffered by the same poison”; and “Whoever carries out suicide by something, he will slaughter himself by the same thing in the hellfire.” He declares, “Who kills himself with something in this world is tormented by the same thing on the resurrection day.” He says in another narrative, “Who suffocates himself, will suffocate himself in the hell, and who spears himself will be in the fire in the hell.” In another similar narration the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) states, “A person who kills himself by something shall be tormented in the hell.” Therefore, Islam has considered suicide to be an unforgivable sin and as per the narrations, the destination of the suicidal person is in the hell. Educating Muslims to prevent suicidal behaviors using Hadiths and Quran verses Islam offers valuable lessons on suicide prevention through Hadiths and Quran verses. One would be able to fit these lessons into three levels of prevention, i.e. primary, secondary and tertiary.
Socio-economic factors, especially income inequality, have important roles in increasing the suicide rate. On the subject of poverty, Allah says in the Quran, “The Evil one threatens you with poverty and bids you to conduct unseemly.” Religion can alleviate poverty in the community by affecting economic problems such as usury, bribery, and extortion. It can also indirectly prevent suicide by strengthening social capital.
For primary prevention, lessons may include those verses, Hadiths, and narratives that aimed at reducing and eliminating the risk factors associated with suicide. The second level of suicide prevention highlights the role of religious scholars and clerics in detecting the most at risk people for carrying out the suicidal behavior. The tertiary level of prevention includes recommendations in support, sympathy, and compassion for friends and relatives of those who carry out suicide. Depression and anxiety disorders are independent risk factors for suicide attempts. The word depression in the Quran has been used widely in connection with grief. Moreover, depression has also been expressed with words such as grief in the Hadiths. In Surah “Araf”, Almighty Allah says, “Children of Adam, when messengers come to you from among yourselves, conveying My messages to you, then all who are mindful of Me and live righteously don’t need to fear not will they grieve.” In this verse, faith and self-behavior correction are cited as two main ways to reduce and treat depression from the Quran’s perspective. Nowadays, scientific studies have also found positive effects of Islamic education on treatment of depression. Intoxicated people are more likely to attempt suicide using more lethal methods. Religion beliefs are associated with lower levels of alcohol abuse. In several verses in the Quran, drinking alcohol is forbidden. In Surah “Maaida”, Allah says, “O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed.” Socio-economic factors, especially income inequality, have important roles in increasing the suicide rate. On the subject of poverty, Allah says in the Quran, “The Evil one threatens you with poverty and bids you to conduct unseemly.” Religion can alleviate poverty in the community by affecting economic problems such as usury, bribery, and extortion. It can also indirectly prevent suicide by strengthening social capital.