The concept of the environment in Islam is “a comprehensive concept that includes earth, sky, and mountains with all creatures, in addition to human and their motivations, emotions and instincts”. All these creatures were created to service the people. Therefore, the people are responsible for maintaining and conserving the environment. Islam forbids wasting of resources and destroying the environment. Water appears in the Holy Quran in over fifty ‘verses’ and forty ‘Suras’. In Surah Nahl, Almighty Allah says, “And God sends down rain from the skies, and gives therewith to the earth after its death”. Islam considers water as an element of life. Therefore, people and other creatures cannot live without water. Almighty Allah says, “We made from water every living thing” (Al-Anbiya: 30). Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said, “Don’t waste water even you are on a running river”, which shows the importance of water in the Islamic thought. Both the Quran and Sunnah emphasize the rationale of using water. If water dries up, life will end; this is true because water is the most important element in the life of an organism. In history, all ancient civilizations were established near water, clearly indicating that people cannot live without water. Therefore, water is important in the Islamic thought. In Islam, water means life. The property of water is not limited to some people; it is common. Ownership of water is not allowed in Islam, especially the ground water. Moreover, Allah created everything in balance. Utilizing natural resources in the wrong way can harm this balance. Allah said in The Quran: “He created man and taught him clear expression. The sun and the moon both run with precision. The stars and trees bow down in prostration. He erected heaven and established the balance, so that you would not transgress the balance. Give just weight do not skimp the balance. “He” laid out the earth for all living creatures” (Al-Rahman: 3-9). The abuse of natural resources can harm the balance of the environment. For example, environmental phenomena such as global warming and climate change are the result of the abuse of natural resources. These phenomena represent the imbalance of the environment.
Allah forbids destroying the environment and orders the people to utilize it in the best way possible. Almighty Allah says, “Eat and drink, but waste not be excess” (Al-araf: 31). Islam forbids all types of excesses, whether in drinking, eating, and other activities. For instance, the irrational use of fertilizers and the disposal of industrial waste in natural surroundings without any treatment can damage natural resources, such as water and plants, as well as affect the fertility of soil.
According to the Islamic thought, life is a complementary system. This system incorporates a number of interactions between its parts; these interactions can be affected by the destruction of the environment, which can have negative effects on the overall system. By maintaining the balance of natural resources, people can avoid environmental problems, which are unpredictable, and protect themselves. Islam encourages the conservation of the environment because it is the only resource of life. Therefore, people have to protect the environment. Environmental resources come in different forms such as water, plants, animals, birds, places, air, and sea, among others. Utilizing these resources is the right of all creatures. The Islamic thought considers the people to be responsible for protecting the environment. Our Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said, “The benefit of thing is in turn for the liability attached to it”. Allah forbids destroying the environment and orders the people to utilize it in the best way possible. Almighty Allah says, “Eat and drink, but waste not be excess” (Al-araf: 31). Islam forbids all types of excesses, whether in drinking, eating, and other activities. For instance, the irrational use of fertilizers and the disposal of industrial waste in natural surroundings without any treatment can damage natural resources, such as water and plants, as well as affect the fertility of soil.