Allah’s last and final Messenger, Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was born on Monday 12th Rabiu al-Awwal, by some accounts on 09th Rabiu al-Awwal, in the year of the Elephant corresponding 20th April 571 AC to Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib and Aminah daughter of Wahab son of Abdu Manaaf in Makkah, the city where holy Ka’bah is situated. The father, Abdullah died before the Prophet’s blessed birth.On seventh day of his birth, Abdul Muttalib performed his Aqiqah and invited all the members of the Qureish. Abdul Muttalib gave him unique name “Muhammad”; while his mother named him “Ahmad”. Both the names were unique traditionally for the peoples of the Qureish as such names were not given to anyone before by their elders. According to one narration in Sahih Bukhari, the Prophet (SAWS) described his five names: Muhammad, Ahmad, Maahee, Haashir and Aaqib. Prophet’s Kunniyah is Abul Qasim and Abu Ibrahim (SAWS). Firstly the Prophet (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was breastfed by his mother for 3/4 days. For few days more, he (SAWS) was also breastfed by Thuweibiyah, the girl-slave of his uncle Abu Lahab, who was set free by Abu Lahab as soon as she informed him about the blessed birth of Muhammad (SAWS). According to the Arab custom, the prominent Arab used to send their newly born babies to the rural area during the breastfeeding period, so that they will be brought up in clean envirounment and they will have command over eloquent language. Muhammad (SAWS), therefore, was also taken by Halimah Sa’adiyah (RA), a blessed lady from “Bnu Sa’ad Tribe” for upbringing and breastfeeding. When the Prophet (SAWS) turned two years, Halimah Sa’adiyah weaned him from breastfeeding and brought him (SAWS) back to his mother, Aaminah. But she remembered the blessing which she was bestowed upon because of him (SAWS), so she requested to his mother to give him back for further upbringing for little longer. She was given back. After some months, he started going with his foster brothers for grazing the goats. When he (SAWS) was four years old still in Banu Sa’ad Tribe, once he went for grazing the goats with his foster brother. Two angels, Jabraeel and Mikaeel (AS) dressed in white clothes descended in form of the human beings and caught him. They split his chest open, took out the heart, cleaned it, put it back at its place and stitched it. The second time Shaqqus Sadr took place when he (SAWS) had turned 10. The third time Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of the Prophethood when he was 40 years old. Fourth Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of Miraaj; (while he was 51 years old.) Because of the incident of Shaqqus Sadr, Halimah and her husband got frightened and hastily brought him back to his mother. Now he (SAWS) was in the care of his beloved mother. When he (SAWS) was 6 years old, his mother took him to Madinah to visit the relatives. His mother died, while coming back from Madinah at a place called “Abwa”. The doubly orphaned Muhammad (SAWS) was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took care of him. After two years, Abdul Muttalib died. When he was just 8 years old, he was in charge of his uncle Abu Talib as Abdul Muttalib confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little double orphan on his deathbed. When the Prophet (SAWS) was 12 years old, he started his journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib. When they reached nearby Busra, they met a Christian Priest, Jarjees, who informed the Qureish about his being Prophet in the future and suggested to not take him to Syria. Then he was returned back to Makkah. Following the Event of the Elephant, the War which took place between Qais and Qureish is called “Harbul Fijaar”. The Qureish won the battle. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in the battle on insistent of his uncles. On behest of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib, the people from Bnu Hashim and Bnu Tameem gather together at the place of Abdullah bin Jada’an and they agreed upon to assist and help the oppressed ones either they are from their own people or some else. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in this agreement. This time he was 15. As the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to go for grazing goats when he was in Banu Sa’ad tribe in his childhood, in the same way he also grazed the goat in Makkah when he was a youth. Siyyidah Khadijah (RA) was a pious, rich and businesswoman of Arabia. When he (SAWS) turned 25, he was offered by Khadijah (RA) to go Syria for her business. Because of poor economic condition of his uncle Abu Talib, he (SAWS) accepted this offer. He went Syria with her slave Meisarh. Following the 2 months and 25-day of the Syria trip, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), then 40, proposed the Prophet (SAWS), then 25, for marriage.
After consultation with his uncle, he (SAWS) got ready. Date was fixed. On the date, the Prophet (SAWS) reached Khadijah’s home in the company of his uncles: Abu Talib, Hamzah and other elders of the family and Nikaah was performed by Abu Talib. When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35, the Qureish wanted to reconstruct the Holy Ka’abah. When the construction of the holy Ka’abah reached the level at which the Hajar-e-Aswad (Black Stone) was to be placed, a dispute erupted among the tribe of the Qureish regarding whom to grant the honour of placing the Stone back on its corner. Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi suggested that the first person to enter the Haram the following morning would be made Hakam (Judge) to give the final decision. They agreed upon it. The Next day in the morning, it was the Prophet (SAWS) who entered the Haram first. Then he (SAWS) was made Hakam. He told the people to put the Black Stone in his Sheet and asked the Chiefs of each tribe to lift it up to the level. Then he (SAWS) himself placed it at its place. When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 37-year old, he started visiting the Cave of Hiraa repeatedly and loving seclusion and loneliness to worship Allah the Almighty. When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 40, once he was in the Cave of Hiraa, Allah the Almighty selected him as His Nabi (Prophet) and Rasool (Messenger) sending the Frist Revelation (Wahee). (Seerate Mustafa 1/128) The Prophet (SAWS) was blessed with Prophethood and Messenger-hood on Monday, 8th Rabiul Awwal. (Seerate Mustafa 1/138-139) Following the Prophethood, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), Warqah bin Naufal, Ali bin Abi Talib, Zaid bin Harathah and Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) embraced Islam. Because of the invitation of Siyyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA), some prominent members of Qureish, like Uthman bin Affan, Zubeir bin Awwam, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Talha bin Obaidullah and Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas embraced Islam. He (SAWS) announced about his Prophethood secretly and almost 40 people embraced Islam. The Home of Arqam (RA), situated at mount Safaa, was selected as the Revert Center. The Muslims used to get together there as long as Sayyiduna Umar had not embraced Islam. For the first three years, he (SAWS) used to call the people towards Islam secretly. After 3-year, the Prophet (SAWS) announced his Prophethood openly and invited his relatives towards Islam from the mount Safaa. Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, Aswad, Harith bin Qeis, Waleed bin Mughirah, Umayyah bin Khalf, Uqbah bin Abi Muaeet etc. When the polytheists felt that the number of the people embracing Islam is growing, they started torturing and oppressing them ruthlessly. When the torture and oppression of the polytheists of Makkah against the Muslim became unbearable, the Prophet (SAWS) suggested the newly reverted Muslims to migrate to Habsha (Ethiopia). The first time 11 males and 5 females and the 2nd time 86 males and 16 females migrated to Habsha secretly. (Sayyiduna Hamzah and) Sayyiduna Umar (RA) embraced Islam. Then the Muslims started offering Salaah in the Holy Ka’abah openly. While on the one hand the King of Ethiopia, Najashi rejected the demands of the Qureish’s ambassadors and gave high respect to Jafar (RA) and his friends, Hamzah and Umar (RA) embraced Islam on the other. Then the polytheists became hopeless and agreed upon to boycott the Prophet (SAWS), Banu Hashim and his Supporters socially. They were detained in the Valley of Abu Talib and had to stay 3-year there in the Valley in worst condition. Social Boycott came to an end and the Muslims took the sigh of relief. The 10th Year of Prophethood is known as “Aamul Huzn”, because uncle, Abu Talib and Sayyidatuna Khadijah (RA) passed away. After their death, the Prophet (SAWS) was apparently helpless. He (SAWS), therefore, made a journey to Ta’if and presented Islam to famous three brothers: Abd Yaa Leil, Masood and Habib of Ta’if; but in return, he (SAWS) was tortured and attacked by the unfortunate folks of Ta’if until he got wounded and his shoes were full with blood. When the polytheists: Waleed bin Mughirah, Abu Jahl, Aas bin Waail etc. demanded the Prophet (SAWS) to prove his Prophethood by splitting the moon into two, if he was a Prophet. The Prophet (SAWS) did so with the help of Allah the Almighty, but they didn’t embrace Islam rather they said that he had been a magician and had played magic. On 27th Rajab, the Prophet (SAWS) was taken on a unique tour of the Kingdom of the Universe, which is known as Miraaj. He proceeded from Masjide Haram to Masjide Aqsa. Then from Masjide Aqsa, he was taken up to the skies until he reached heavenly tree known as Sidratul Muntaha. The polytheists negated this tour; while Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) accepted it without a doubt. A group of Khazraj from Yathrib (Madinah) came to Makkah in the Hajj season. The Prophet (SAWS) invited them towards Islam and recited few verses of the Glorious Qura’an in front of them. As they saw the Prophet (SAWS) recognized him and they started whispering that this is the same Prophet about whom we heard from the Jew of Madinah. Then they embraced Islam in the same gathering. They were six people (RA) who embraced Islam. From Yathrib, next year 12 people came to Makkah to meet the Prophet (SAWS). Five of them were those who had already embraced Islam in the previous journey and seven people were new. They embraced Islam and took pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS). When they were going back to Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) sent Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Ummu Maktoom and Mus’ab bin Umeir with them to teach the Qura’an and the Islamic rulings. In the same year, As’ad bin Zurarah (RA) encouraged the Muslims to establish Jumuah Salah and it took place. After few days, a letter from the Prophet (SAWS) to Musab bin Umeir came, where he (SAWS) had instructed to establish Jumuah Salaah. Sayyiduna Mus’ab bin Umeir came from Madinah to Makkah with a group of Muslims to perform Hajj. In this group there were 73 males and 2 females who took the pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS) in Valley. This pledge is called “Beiate Aqabah Thaaniyah”. Following the completion of the Pledge, the Prophet (SAWS) informed them that the Prophet Musa (AS) had selected 12 Chiefs from the children of Israel; therefore he (SAWS) also selected 12 leaders and chiefs from them on behest of Jabraeel (AS) and guided them to lead and head their people. In the beginning, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Aleih Wa Sallam) was shown the Hijrah place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts, in a dream. Up to the time, he (SAWS) was undecided about the place of Hijrah, until it was confirmed and the place was decided through Wahi (Revelation). Then the Prophet (SAWS) directed his followers to migrate to Madinah with the command of Allah, the Almighty. They were received and welcomed in Madinah with enthusiasm and much hospitality. The polytheists, after observing the Hijrah of the Sahabah (RA) one after another, thought that Rasulullah (SAWS) will migrate today or tomorrow as well. So, they started thinking seriously to prevent him from the Hijrah. They met in all haste. After several milder expedients had been rejected, Abu Jahl opined that he should be killed and for killing one man should be chosen out of every tribe and that each man should strike a blow at him with his sword so that responsibility of the guilt would rest equally on all tribes. The Banu Abd Manaaf was much inferior and therefore would not be able to revenge their kinsman’s death. Iblis, who participated in the meeting pretending to be a Sheikh from Najd, conquered with this opinion. Following the meeting, Jabraeel (AS) came and informed Rasulullah (SAWS) about the polytheists’ plot. The Prophet (SAWS) informed Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) about his plan to migrate. A number of youths were selected for the bloody deed. As the night advanced, the assassins posted themselves round the house of the Prophet (SAWS). They watched all night long, waiting to murder the Prophet (SAWS) when he should leave his house at the early dawn. By some the Prophet (SAWS) had warned of the danger, and he directed Hazrat Ali (RA) to lie down in his place and wrap himself up in his green clock, which he did. The Prophet (SAWS) miraculously escaped through the window and he appeared to the house of Abu Bakr (RA), unperceived by door. In the meantime, they, looking through a crevice and seeing Hazrat Ali (RA), whom they mistook for Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) himself, asleep, continued watching there until morning.When Harzat Ali (RA) arose, they found themselves deceived. The fury of the Qureish was now unbounded. The news that they would be assassins had returned unsuccessful and Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had escaped aroused their whole energy. May Allah Guide us all towards true path, increase love towards our holy Prophet (SAWS) and his followers…..Ameen!
(The authors regularly write on Islamic topics exclusively for “Kashmir Horizon”. Views are their own)