Education is the one and most powerful instrument of social change and social development. Particularly Women’s Education in India is one of the major preoccupations of the government as well as the civil society. This is because educated women are able to play a vital role in developing India. There is saying that “to educate a girl child means to educate a family”. Education is the mile stone of empowerment of women as it helps them to change their lives, respond to their challenges and question their traditional roles.
Criteria for KGBV: Gender inequality reinforces itself in education as it is factually proved that the rate of literacy for women is much lower than men in all censuses. To cope up the challenges “Kasturba Gandhi BalikaVidyalaya (KGBV)” scheme was launched by Government of India (GOI) in July 2004 for setting up residential schools at upper primary level for girls belonging predominantly to the SC, ST, OBC and Minorities communities in difficult areas. The scheme ensures access and quality education to girls from disadvantaged communities. Initially it ran as a separate scheme and was merged with SSA with effect from 1st April, 2007. KGBV has to be opened in Educationally Backward Blocks (EBB), previously defined on a composite criteria of blocks with a rural female literacy rate below the national average (46.13% : Census 2001) and gender gap in literacy higher than the national average (21.59% : Census 2001). The criteria of eligible blocks was revised with effect from 1st April, 2008 to include (i) EBBs with rural female literacy below 30%, and (ii) Towns/cities having minority concentration (as per the list identified by Ministry of Minority Affairs, GOI) with female rate below the national average (53.67% : Census 2001). In 2010-11, opening of KGBVs was extended to all EBBs with female literacy below the national average as per Census 2001. The scheme helped to mainstream the drop out girls in elementary education system. The KGBV addressed the educational needs of girls from marginalised and disadvantaged communities of the society. In India, a total 3609 KGBVs for class VI to VIII have been sanctioned in 27 States and 3UTs. In 2009-10, “Girls Hostel” scheme was launched by GOI, under RashtriyaMadhyamikShikshaAbhiyan (RMSA), to make secondary education (Class-IX to XII) of good quality accessible and affordable residential facilities to Girls in the age group of 14-18 years. Criteria for eligibility of Girls Hostels were also EB Blocks. This scheme has opened the door for class-VIII pass out girls from KGBV for their higher study with residential facility. All these Hostels have capacity of 100 girls.
Types of KGBV: As three existing centrally sponsored educational programms, namely Sarva ShikshaAbhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE) have been unified under one umbrella “SamagraShiksha” in FY 2018-19, all sanctioned Girls Hostels become part and parcel of KGBV of concerned Educationally Backward Blocks and girls got opportunity to continue their study upto class-XII without any transition loss. The guidelines of Samagra Shiksha reveals that all KGBVs (upto class VIII) will be upgraded up to secondary level i.e. class-XII in phased manner. Provision of four types of KGBVs has been done in Samagra Shiksha and States have the option to choose them as per their convenience and need. These are KGBV Type-I (Class VI to VIII, capacity-100, budget- Rs 60 lakh), Type-II (Class VI to X, capacity 150, budget- Rs 80 lakh), Type-III (Class VI to XII, capacity-200, budget- 100 lakh) and Type-IV (Class IX to XII, capacity-100, budget- Rs25 Lakh). The Girls Hostels (constructed under RMSA), close to the existing KGBV buildings have been kept under Type-III, whereas Girls Hostels, which are far away from KGBV buildings, have been kept under Type-IV.
S.N. States/UTs Type-wise sanctioned number of KGBV
Type- I Type- II Type- III Type- IV Total
1 And.& Niko. Island 0 0 0 0 0
2 Andhra Pradesh 0 131 221 235 587
3 Arunachal Pradesh 30 19 0 32 81
4 Assam 14 67 0 81 162
5 Bihar 443 0 92 197 732
6 Chandigarh 0 0 0 0 0
7 Chhatisgarh 94 0 0 74 168
8 Dadra& N. Haveli and Daman & Diu 1 0 0 1 2
9 Delhi 0 0 0 0 0
10 Goa 0 0 0 0 0
11 Gujarat 24 32 33 81 170
12 Haryana 12 0 24 36 72
13 Himachal Pradesh 3 0 7 5 15
14 Jammu & Kashmir 89 0 0 87 176
15 Jharkhand 0 0 203 0 203
16 Karnataka 71 0 3 74 148
17 Kerala 0 0 0 1 1
18 Ladakh 10 0 0 10 20
19 Lakshadweep 0 0 0 0 0
20 Madhya Pradesh 141 0 66 201 408
21 Maharashtra 43 0 0 43 86
22 Manipur 5 6 0 5 16
23 Meghalaya 10 0 0 9 19
24 Mizoram 1 0 0 1 2
25 Nagaland 11 0 0 11 22
26 Odisha 0 182 0 173 355
27 Puducherry 0 0 0 0 0
28 Punjab 4 0 18 7 29
29 Rajasthan 86 0 114 119 319
30 Sikkim 0 1 0 0 1
31 Tamilnadu 52 5 4 44 105
32 Telangana 0 342 133 251 726
33 Tripura 3 3 3 6 15
34 Uttar Pradesh 301 0 445 132 878
35 Uttarakhand 21 0 7 21 49
36 West Bengal 87 0 5 67 159
Total 1556 788 1378 2004 5726
Facalities to Girls : In the country, some KGBVs are full fledged schools, whereas some are only hostels attached to nearby existing middle schools. The girls enrolled in KGBV got all residential & educational facilities such as food, uniform, winter dress, books, stationery, daily use materials, sanitary napkins etc. They are being tought by subject teachers appointed/deputed in KGBVs. Capacity building of the wardens& account personals are done at State or District level for managerial & account work, whereas the teachers are oriented in the subjects concerned. In addition to good quality subject teaching, extracurricular, skill development and other initiatives for personal, moral, physical development are undertaken to enhance the confidence level of the girls. Vocational training such as Dress making, computer education, life skill, painting, music, vermin-compost preparation etc. enrich girls’ capacity and provide scope for being “Atmanirbhar” after graduation from the Vidyalaya.Incursion tour for girls of KGBV is also organized for visiting historical, religious and important places of the states.
Safety & Security: Safety and Security of Girls, residing in the KGBVs, is of the prime concern and detailed guidelines have been issued to KGBV management. CCTV cameras&Biometrics Attendance system have been installed and are being connected to monitoring offices through Internet networking. Group insurance coverage for the gills has been provided. No male member can access inside the KGBV hostels after 5.00 PM; and in the living area even during day time. Wardensand teachers are sensitized towards safety and security of girls and they stay with girls during night. Movement Registers are being maintained in all KGBVs, when girls are taken away by their guardians. Monitoring of KGBVs are done by State, district & block levels educational functioneries and remedial measures are taken up. Self defence training programme for girls of KGBV is organized through trained personnels so that they can build up in themselves certain self defence skills and become psychologically, intellectually and physically strong to protect themselves in time of distress. They are trained to leverage daily articles like keychains, dupattas etc. for their protection.
Health Issues: Regular health check-up of the girls is ensured in KGBV through health centresandthe health records of the girls aremaintained. General insurance of inmates is also done through insurance agencies. Convergence with Health department has been ensured for implementation of Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplement (WIFS) programme to reduce the prevalence and severity of anaemia in adolescent population (10-19 years). In addition to weekly availability of IFA supplements, Albendazole tablets for de-worming are to be administered twice a year to the learners.
Centre of Social Change: In state like Bihar, KGBVs have also proved to be a centre of social change. Its inmates have engaged themselves in campaign against social devils like Child marriage, Dowry System and Alkohalism. They also actively participated in SwachchhataAbhiyan. Under “Clean KGBV Green KGBV” programmes KGBVs have been covered with plants to conserve environment. Guardians, particularly mothers of enrolled girls are involved in decision making of day to day functioning of the KGBVs.
Some Bottlenecks: There are some bottlenecks in the smooth implementation of the scheme, which needs to be resolved by Education Ministry, Government of India. (1) Provision of lumpsum budget, within the ceiling, should be done for KGBV. The break-up of the activities &their unit costs should be planned by the concerned KGBVsand not at national level, as each KGBV has its own requirements. (2) Cost for Furniture & equipment are part of estimate of building construction as a component, for which there should clearcut provision of 10 – 15% of the estimate. (3) There are financial constraints in the operation of KGBV Type-IV (class IX to XII), as it has unit cost of just Rs. 25 lakh as compared to Rs 60 lakh for Type-I (class VI to VIII), having same capacity (100 girls) and lower age group. It has been reported that Education Ministry is planning to enhance the unit cost @ Rs 40 lakh for KGBV Type-IV in further extension of SamagraShiksha scheme, but that must be at least Rs 60 lakh. (4) For KGBVs, where sufficient land is not available for its upgradation, there should be provision of budget for acquisition of land on the pattern of other central infrastructure schemes. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas have proved to be great boon as well as chance for out of school girls predominantly belonging to depressed sections of the society and whose paths for education have come to an abrupt halt. This ambitious scheme helps all round and conductive growth of these girls and makes them responsible, self dependent, decision maker too. KGBV will open the door for success in various walks of life to girls, which ultimately will nurture their future to new horizon.
(Author is a technocrat and academician. Presently, works as Additional State Program Officer in Bihar Education Project Council, Patna. Views are his own) firstname.lastname@example.org