COVID19 Impact On Children, Pregnant Women, Rhnull Bodies

Rayees Nabi

Corona virus is a family of enveloped single stranded, positive strand RNA viruses classified within Nidovirales order. This coronavirus family consists of pathogens of many animal species and humans , including the recently isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona virus (SARS_COV).It’s impact on children and pregnant women are very common but anxiety and hypertension reduces the growth ability in both cases. Rhnull category is still a mystery.
Children are not the face of this pandemic but they are at risk being among its biggest victims. While they have thankfully been largely spared from the direct health effects of COVID-19 – at least to date the crisis is having a profound effect on their wellbeing. All children, of all ages, and in all countries, are being affected, in particular by the socio economic impacts and, in some cases, by mitigation measures that may inadvertently do more harm than good. This is a universal crisis and for some children, the impact will be life long. Moreover, the harmful effects of this pandemic will not be distributed equally. They are expected to be most damaging for children in the poorest countries, and in the poorest neighbourhoods, and for those in already disadvantaged or vulnerable situations. There are three main channels through which Children are affected by this crisis: infection with the virus itself; the immediate socioeconomic impacts of measures to stop transmission of the virus and end the pandemic; and the potential longer-term effects of delayed implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. All of this is affecting children in multiple ways:
1: Falling into poverty: An estimated 42-66 million children could fall into extreme poverty as a result of the crisis this year, adding to the estimated 386 million children already in extreme poverty in 2019.
2: Exacerbating the learning crisis: 188 countries have imposed countrywide school closures, affecting more than 1.5 billion children and youth. The potential losses that may accrue in learning for today’s young generation, and for the development of their human capital, are hard to fathom. More than two-thirds of countries have Introduced a national distance learning platform, but among low-income countries the share is only 30 percent. Before this crisis, almost one third of the world’s young people were already digitally excluded.
3: Threats to child survival and health:
Economic hardship experienced by families as a result of the global economic downturn could result in hundreds of thousands of additional child deaths in 2020, reversing the last 2 to 3 years of progress in reducing infant mortality within a single year and this alarming figure does not even take into account services disrupted due to the crisis it only reflects the current relationship between economies and mortality, so is likely an under-estimate of the impact. Rising malnutririon is expected as 368.5 million children across 143 countries who normally rely on school meals for a reliable source of daily nutrition must now look to other sources. The risks to child mental health and well being are also considerable. Refugee and internally displaced children as well as those living in detention and situations of active conflict are especially vulnerable. Risks for child safety: Lockdowns and shelter in place measures come with heightened risk of children witnessing or suffering violence and abuse. Children in conflict settings, as well as those living in unsanitary and crowded conditions such as refugee and IDP settlements, are also at considerable risk. Children’s reliance on online platforms for distance learning has also increased their risk of exposure to inappropriate content and online predators. This policy brief provides a deeper analysis of these effects. It identifies also a series of immediate and sustained actions for the attention of goverments and policymakers, including In relation to the following three priorities:
• Rebalance the combination of interventions to minimize the impact of standard physical distancing and lockdown strategies on children in low-income countries and communities and expand social protection programmes to reach the most vulnerable children.
• Prioritize the continuity of child-centered services, with a particular focus on equity of access particularly in relation to schooling, nutrition programmes, immunization and other maternal and newborn care, and community-based child protection programmes.
• Provide practical support to parents and caregivers, including how to talk about the pandemic with children, how to manage their own mental health and the mental health of their children, and tools to help support their children’s learning. For each of the above, specific protections must be put in place for vulnerable children including refugees, the displaced, homeless migrants, minorities, slum-dwellers, children living with disabilities, street children, living in refugee settlements, and children in institutions. Now is the time to step up international solidarity for children and humanity and to lay the foundations for a deeper transformation of the way we nurture and invest In our world’s youngest generation. The United Nations system, our agencies, funds, programmes and the Secretariat entities are working across all settings and stand ready to support all governments and societies.
Doing physical exercise on regular basis will increase our immunity level and will help us to survive this pandemic. Boost your immunity with fruits , vegetables etc. Since vaccine is not available at the present but we shall still survive, In my opinion I seek the only way to fight this pandemic.
The channels through which COVID-19 affects children : The COVID-19 pandemic presents the greatest test the world has faced since the Second World War and the formation of the United Nations. To understand impact on the world’s children, it is helpful to distinguish three channels through which their lives are being affected. The first channel is through infection with the virus.
Thankfully, children have been largely spared from the severe symptomatic reactions more common among older people at least to date. Numerous cases of hospitalizations and deaths of children who have succumbed to the virus have been recorded, but these are exceptions and are likely related to prior conditions. Much more common has been for children to tragically lose a parent, family member, or caregiver to COVID-19. The psychosocial impacts of such loss on children should not be overlooked.The second channel is through the socioeconomic effects of the virus and related measures to suppress trans-mission and control the pandemic. As health services become overwhelmed in caring for large numbers of infected patients requiring treatment, children and pregnant women are less able to access standard care. Children of frontline workers have also had to adapt to alternative childcare arrangements. Children living in areas of armed conflict, who already struggle extensively to access health services may be further excluded from attention and access to the severely stretched health systems. Physical distancing and lockdown measures, restrictions of movement and border closures, and surveillance strategies are all affecting children in myriad ways. Face-to-face child services schooling,nutrition,programmes,maternal and newborn care, immunization services, sexual and reproductive health services, HIV treatment, alternative care facilities, community-based child protection programmes, and case management for children requiring supplementary personalized care, including those living with disabilities,
and abuse victims have often been partially or completely suspended. The impact of the pandemic extends far beyond the sphere of physical health. The pandemic is having profound effects on children’s mental well-being, their social development, their safety, their privacy, their economic security, and beyond, as we explore in the following section. Children living in refugee settlements and those living in refugee settlements or other crowded conditions are especially vulnerable. While children are not the face of this pandemic, its broader impacts on children risk being catastrophic and amongst the most lasting consequences for societies as a whole. The third channel is the risk that the virus and its response poses to the longer-term efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and ensure the realization of the rights of all children. Before this crisis, we lived in a world that failed to care adequately for children; where a child under age 15 dies every five seconds; where one in every five children is malnourished (stunted); over half (53%) of 10-year old children in low- and middle-income countries (as high as four in five children in poor countries) can’t read and understand simple stories; and one child in four under the age of 5 does not have their birth registered. The longer the current crisis, the more dramatic the impacts on these children, as economies struggle and government spending is restricted and the more likely the increase in their numbers. In active conflict situations, the pandemic or pandemic response may increase the push and pull factors for child recruitment, as well as sexual exploitation and abduction. What started as a public health emergency has snowballed into a formidable test for global development and for the prospects of today’s young generation All available evidence suggests that pregnant women are at no greater risk of becoming seriously unwell than other healthy adults if they develop coronavirus. The large majority of pregnant women experience only mild or moderate cold/flu-like symptoms. Cough, fever, shortness of breath, headache and loss of sense of smell are other relevant symptoms. If you think you may have symptoms of coronavirus you should use the NHS 111 online service for information, if you develop more severe symptoms or your recovery is delayed, this may be a sign that you are developing a more significant chest infection that requires specialised care. While pregnant women are at no greater risk of becoming seriously unwell than other healthy adults, a small proportion of pregnant women with coronavirus have required admission to hospital for treatment. As this is a very new virus, we are just beginning to learn about it. There is no evidence to suggest an increased risk of miscarriage. Emerging evidence suggests that transmission from a woman to her baby during pregnancy or birth (vertical transmission) is probable. It is important to emphasise that in all reported cases of newborn babies developing coronavirus very soon after birth, the babies were well. Given current evidence, it is considered unlikely that if you have the virus it would cause problems with your baby’s development, and none have been observed currently. Across the world, emerging reports suggest some babies have been born prematurely to women who were very unwell with coronavirus. It is unclear whether coronavirus caused these premature births, or whether it was recommended that their babies was born early for the benefit of the women’s health and to enable them to recover. In the recent UK study of 427 pregnant women with coronavirus published on 11 May, the data reported outcomes for babies who were born to women with coronavirus severe enough that the woman required hospital admission. Although almost one in five were born prematurely and were admitted to a neonatal unit, fewer than 20 babies were born very prematurely (when the women were less than 32 weeks’ pregnant). One in 20 babies born (12 babies in total) had a positive test for coronavirus, but only half of these babies – 6 babies – had a positive test immediately after birth, suggesting that transmission of the coronavirus infection from a woman to her baby is low. The number of babies born at term (37 weeks or later) to women who had tested positive for coronavirus that required neonatal care was similar to the number of babies born to women without the virus about 1 in 10 .The ways by which a pregnant lady can reduce the risk of corana are:
The most important thing to do is to follow government guidance. For pregnant women and the rest of their households, this includes:Wash your hands regularly,Use a tissue when you or anyone in your family coughs or sneezes, discard it and wash your hands, avoid contact with someone who is displaying symptoms of coronavirus (these symptoms include high temperature and/or new and continuous cough) Avoid non-essential use of public transport when possible Work from home, ,Avoid large and small gatherings in public spaces, noting that pubs, restaurants, leisure centres and similar venues are currently shut as infections spread easily in closed spaces where people gather together, avoid gatherings with friends and family; keep in touch using remote technology such as phone, internet and social media. Use telephone or online services to contact your gynecologist or other essential services. A blood type that was discovered in 1961, named Rhnull for the fact that it is missing the most common type of antigen, Rh, is the rarest-known blood type in the world. Since then, only about 43 people on the entire planet had been identified to have Rhnull, According to the study, only 14 families with the Rhnull phenotype have been recorded in medical literature. The Rhnull phenotype is produced by at least two different genetic mechanisms. According to the study, only 14 families with the Rhnull phenotype have been recorded in medical literature. The Rhnull phenotype is produced by at least two different genetic mechanisms. Now the question arises here ,can we make an antidode from Rhnull blood group ,does covid19 have any impact upon those Homo sapiens who have Rhnull group.its still a mystery where we can make a antidode or corona beats also a unique blood group on Earth. Since this increasing threat of life caused by pandemic covid19 is at an alarm. The need of the time is believe yourself and your immunity. The myth which is circulated on social media that the deadly virus demolishes the life activity of Children and pregnant women’s is totally unauthentic. We must follow the proper guidelines of WHO and other pre cautionary measures issued by other health organisations. It will help us to combat this deadly virus. Doing physical exercise on regular basis will increase our immunity level and will help us to survive this pandemic. Boost your immunity with fruits , vegetables etc. Since vaccine is not available at the present but we shall still survive, In my opinion I seek the only way to fight this pandemic.
(The author is a student of Zoology with deep interest in post doctoral research. Views are his own, rayeesnabi3@gmail.com)

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COVID-19

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